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    2020,41(4):549-556, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0062
    Abstract:
    In the context of the new era, stable poverty alleviation and rural revitalization have the unified goals and the complementary measures, and it is of great significance to achieve an organic connection between the two. Based on the process and characteristics of poverty governance and an on site survey in northern Jiangsu, this paper analyzed the logical basis of the theory of organic connection between stable poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, explored the cognitive deviations in practice, and discussed policies to promote the organic connection between stable poverty alleviation and rural revitalization. Results show that since economic reform and opening up, China’s poverty governance has experienced four stages: relief-type poverty alleviation, development-type poverty alleviation, industrial poverty alleviation, and targeted poverty alleviation. The change characteristics was showed three aspects including the transformation of poverty governance in China from “transfusion relief” to “hematopoietic development”, the targeted poverty alleviation follows the “region-county-village-household” evolution path from “area” to “point”, and the goal of poverty management changes from “solving food and clothing” problems to “improving people’s livelihood” and “three guarantees”. Currently, the connection between stabilizing poverty alleviation and rural revitalization follows the internal logic of taking rural industry as the interface, taking rural farmers as the main body, and taking rural entrepreneurship as the means. The north Jiangsu region has done a lot of work in the organic integration of poverty alleviation and rural revitalization, and has explored some positive practices. However, there are still some cognitive deviations in the practice of stabilizing poverty alleviation and the organic integration of rural revitalization, which is manifested in developing rural industry with traditional industrialization thinking, neglecting rural characteristics and the status of farmers as the main body, and ignoring the entrepreneurial ability of farmers. Therefore, to achieve stable poverty alleviation and rural revitalization and to promote sustainable development of the rural economy, this paper suggests to derive new business forms based on agriculture, to upgrade new capabilities with farmers as the main body, and to accumulate new kinetic energy with entrepreneurship.
    2020,41(4):557-567, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0067
    Abstract:
    Studying the impact of urbanization on food security is a problem of coordination among industries in the process of urbanization. Because of large population, the research about urbanization affecting food security has been popular with the improvement of the national urbanization level, especially after China has entered the stage of rapid urbanization. Based on a brief history of urbanization and food security research, this review sorts out literature over the past decade and points out development and changes of research focus from the perspectives of the factors and the solutions. In the field of factors, researchers gradually focused on farmland reduction, technology adoption for increasing agricultural productivity, human capital and consumption, which gives more and more comprehensive understanding of the impact of urbanization on food security. In the field of solutions, researcher gradually established an improving food security system in the context of urbanization, which appeared in the evolution of strategic policies, the way to strengthen production capacity and the changes depending on oversea resources. Finally, this review thinks it worth doing further research in spatial heterogeneity, human capital and changes in institutions.
    2020,41(4):568-577, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0034
    Abstract:
    Cultivating new-type professional farmers is one of the important measures to promote the organic connection between small holders and modern agricultural development. It has a supporting role in protecting rural human capital and alleviating rural construction issues such as “hollowization of rural society, marginalization of agriculture, and aging of farmers”. From the coupling angle between agricultural modernization and farmer’s professionalization, taking Heilongjiang Province as an example, and applying the entropy method and coupling harmonious degree model, this paper analyzed the development characteristics and the integrated coordination development relationship and explored the cultivation path of new-type professional farmers. Results show that, from 2015 to 2017, the comprehensive evaluation index of agricultural modernization in Heilongjiang Province fluctuates between 0.330 and 0.351, and the comprehensive evaluation index of farmer’s professionalization fluctuates between 0.323 and 0.329. During this period, the development of agricultural modernization goes slightly ahead of the development of farmer’s professionalization. There is a large difference in the level of comprehensive development of agricultural modernization and farmer’s professionalization at the prefecture-level cities. High-value areas are concentrated in southwestern cities such as Harbin, Suihua, and Qiqihar. The degree of coupling of the two major systems in Heilongjiang Province fluctuates slightly between 0.478 and 0.481, and in general, it is in the antagonistic coupling stage. The degree of integrated coordination is maintained between 0.387 and 0.389, the level of integrated coordination is in the mild maladjustment stage. In spatial pattern distribution, the coupling coordination degree shows an increasing trend from northeast city to southwest city. Therefore, in order to achieve the rapid development of agricultural modernization and farmer’s professionalization in the direction of high-quality coordination and to optimize the career path for new-type professional farmers’ cultivation, it is necessary to further optimize the development of weaker new professional farmers’ cultivation work, to set cultivation goals according to local conditions, to enrich the cultivation contents according to the situation, to explore the cultivation modes, and to take multiple measures to improve policy support system.
    2020,41(4):578-586, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0058
    Abstract:
    Based on a provincial panel data from 1978 to 2016, this paper explores the temporal and spatial characteristics of transportation infrastructure, agricultural mechanization, and rice production, and applies the two-way fixed effect panel data model and the mediation effect test model to empirically analyze the comprehensive action path of transportation infrastructure and agricultural mechanization on rice production under the multi-dimensional factor framework. Results show that: 1) the rice production has experienced a period of increase with some fluctuations, rapid decrease and steady increase, while the highway mileage and agricultural machinery input have first increased steadily and then increased rapidly; 2) the differences of rice production, highway mileage, and agricultural machinery input in each province are obvious, and the main dividing line of rice production has changed from “Qinling Huaihe River line” to “400 mm precipitation line”; 3) the increase of highway mileage and agricultural machinery input can significantly promote the increase of rice production, and the influence of highway mileage on rice production has direct and indirect paths. Therefore, optimizing the allocation of public resources of transportation infrastructure and agricultural mechanization production factors is an important way to improve rice production capacity and to ensure food security in China.
    2020,41(4):587-598, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0063
    Abstract:
    Improving agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) is an important way to achieve high-quality agricultural development in China. This paper constructed a spatial association network model of China’s agricultural TFP to analyze the overall characteristics, local characteristics, and individual characteristics of the network and examined the driving forces of the special correlation network of China’s agricultural TFP. Results show that 1) there are a very obvious spatial correlation and spillover effects in China’s agricultural TFP. The spatial correlation network is in a connected state. The network density shows a V-shaped fluctuating trend. In addition, the hierarchical structure is gradually broken and the network stability is gradually enhanced; 2) in the spatial network of China’s agricultural TFP, the western region belongs to the net beneficiary sector, the south and southwest regions belong to the “brokers sector”, and the Bohai Rim, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, and northeast regions belong to the two-way spillover sector; 3) five major provinces, including Hubei, Inner Mongolia, Henan, Shandong, and Shaanxi Province, are in the absolute core position in the spatial correlation network of China’s agricultural TFP, and they have stronger influences on the factors of agricultural production, while other provinces, including Jilin, Hainan, Qinghai, Tianjin, and Shanghai, are in an absolute marginal and passive position in the network; and 4) geographic adjacency has a positive effect on the spatial correlation of China’s agricultural TFP, and other factors such as differences in agricultural structure and differences in factor output levels have some negative effects. This paper provides a general theoretical basis and reference for understanding and improving China’s agricultural TFP.
    2020,41(4):599-607, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0051
    Abstract:
    Under the background of continuous advancement of “The Belt and Road” initiative, systematic evaluation of agricultural investment risks in foreign countries along the “The Belt and Road” route is of great significance for promoting the policy of China’s agricultural “Going Out”. Based on the risk management theory, this paper constructed an evaluation index system from four aspects, including politics, economics and market, society, and agricultural industry, and adopted an improved entropy value method to compare and to analyze the risk levels of agricultural investment in foreign countries along the route. In addition, this paper also adopted the clustering analysis to divide the levels of risks and discussed the inspirations of China’s agricultural “Going Out” strategy. Results show that the overall risk level of agricultural investment along “The Belt and Road” route was decreasing since 2005. Besides, there were significant regional differences in the comprehensive risk levels, with lower investment risks in Southeast Asia and developed countries, followed by Central Asia and Central and Eastern Europe, and higher investment risks in South Asia, West Asia and North Africa. Additionally, the risk level fluctuations in the economic and market dimension as well as the industrial dimension were reduced, and there were no obvious changes in the political and social dimensions. Based on the above analysis results and taking into account the characteristics of China’s agricultural investment and the international economic and trade situations, to steadily promote China’s agricultural “Going Out” strategy, this paper recommends to further optimize the layout of the agricultural industry chain, to explore potential investment markets, to pay attention to the risks of cultural diversity, and to establish a joint mechanism to hedge or reduce major agricultural investment risks.
    2020,41(4):608-617, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0035
    Abstract:
    Crop revenue insurance can compensate the revenue loss resulted from the fluctuations of yield, price or both. It is becoming the common trend of the development of agricultural insurance products in the world. The crop revenue insurance has stepped into mature stage in the United States, whose experience is an important reference for China to develop crop revenue insurance. Employing the comparative study method, this paper introduces the organization framework of agricultural insurance in China and the United States separately, and explains the basic design and operation of each crop revenue insurance product, and makes a comparative analysis on crop revenue insurance products between the two countries under the product classification framework of CAT, BUY-UP and SCO. Results show that the crop revenue insurance in China is still mainly based on quasi-revenue insurance products, and there are still some shortcomings such as some unreasonable settings of output and price data, single insurance coverage level and insurance premium subsidy policy. In contrast, there are many kinds of crop revenue insurance in the United States, based on years of data on crop yields and futures prices, it provides many alternative levels of protection, insurance units are divided between individuals and farms, and differentiated premium subsidy policies are set. Therefore, important implications for developing agricultural revenue insurance include: to follow the development goal of agricultural policy when designing policy-based agricultural insurance, to improve the efficiency of agricultural insurance organization, and to strengthen the construction of agricultural insurance data.
    2020,41(4):618-627, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0045
    Abstract:
    China’s aging population in rural areas has become a serious problem and satisfying the increased demand for senior care became very challenging. Based on a survey data of 6 counties and districts of Shaanxi Province in 2019, this paper analyzed the demand willingness to the rural socialized senior care services and explored its influencing factors by using the descriptive statistics and the binary Logit model. Results show that 82.8% of the rural seniors had the demand willingness to utilize the socialized senior care services. Currently, there were three types of socialized senior care services, including the home-based senior care services, the community-based senior care services, and the institutional senior care services; and among them, the home-based senior care services were the main type, and the regional differences were small. The most demanded contents for senior care services include the economic support, daily life care, and medical care. Household income and the degree of perfection of policies and regulations have positive impacts on the demand for the socialized senior care services. While marital status, the number of children, family size, intergenerational relations, health status, policy attention and publicity, and life care evaluation have negative impacts. Therefore, it is necessary to further improve the rural social security system, to correctly handle the relationship between family senior care and socialized senior care, and to rationally arrange the contents of the socialized senior care service according to the needs of the seniors in rural areas.
    2020,41(4):628-636, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0031
    Abstract:
    Promoting the reform of rural collective property right system is a significant procedure to strengthen the collective economy and to realize rural revitalization. Based on a survey data of 21 rural pilot villages in Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, this paper analyzed the difference between poor and non-poor villages’ practice in the process of asset assessment, membership definition, equity management and formation of new economic organizations in order to explore the reform path to adapt to the development of rural collective economy. Results show that the surveyed villages do have same path to the reform of the rural collective property right system. However, due to participating in the village-enterprise cooperation plan, non-poor villages present characteristics like “active docking” and “enterprise plan”; while the poor villages present the characteristics of “government guidance and steady development”. The success of the reform cannot only require the promotion of the government, but also needs the external advantages of enterprise capital and technology injection, as well as the internal advantages of agricultural resources. Therefore, this paper suggests: to build a public platform, to revitalize its own agricultural resources, to innovate and develop the collective economy, to combine social capital and technology, and to optimize the management structure of new economic organizations.
    2020,41(4):637-648, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0050
    Abstract:
    Farmland circulation is an important condition for implementing the strategy of rural revitalization and for realizing the modernization of agriculture. Farmers gratuitous subcontracting their farmland has been considered as an inadequate development of farmland transfer market. From the perspectives of formal and informal institutions and based on a field survey data from three provinces of Shandong, Hubei, and Guangxi, this paper analyzed farmers’ choice of subcontracting methods to avoid the risk of property right and explored the impacts of formal and informal institutions on farmers’ choice of gratuitous subcontracts by a bivariate Probit model. Results show that paid subcontracts accounted for 67.87% of farmland transfers and 32.13% were gratuitous subcontracts. The proportion of gratuitous subcontracts of certificated farmland was 27.27%, which was lower than the proportion of gratuitous subcontracts of uncertificated farmland of 61.70%. The proportion of gratuitous subcontracts with the lessee being a relative or friend was 69.53%; while the subcontracts with the lessee not being a relative was only 9.26%. Farmland registration and certification had no significant influences on farmers’ choice of gratuitous subcontracts. Farmers’ security perception of farmland certification negatively impacted farmers’ choice of gratuitous subcontracts significantly. The relationship between the two sides of farmland transaction promoted the probability of farmers’ choice of gratuitous subcontracts significantly. Under the influence of interaction between formal and informal institutions, the improvement of farmers’ security perception of farmland certification could break the lock-up effect of the relationship between the two sides of farmland transaction on farmers’ choice of gratuitous subcontracts. Therefore, to facilitate the transformation of farmland transfer market and to optimize the allocation of resources, this paper suggests: to take the opportunity of farmland registration and certification to improve farmers’ security perception of property right confirmation, to give full play of the synergy effects of formal and informal institutions for farmland transfer to fit market and relationship, and to guide farmers to actively realize the farmland property income.
    2020,41(4):649-658, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0060
    Abstract:
    Under the context of frequent agricultural product safety issues, accelerating the popularization and application of biological pesticide is of great significance in order to replace chemical pesticide and realize the green transformation of agriculture. Based on a household survey data of cherry growers in Guanzhong area of Shaanxi Province, China, this paper empirically analyzed the impacts of green cognition and reality on the degree of deviation between farmers’ willingness and their behaviors of biological pesticide application by a Multi-ordered Logistic model. Subsequently, the interpretation structural model was applied to explore the logical relationship among various influencing factors. Results indicate that: the deviation between farmers’ willingness and their behaviors of biological pesticide application is present in most rural households, of which the degree is relatively high. Furtherly, this paper also found that from the perspective of green cognition, biological pesticide cognition, perception of agricultural production resource waste, and awareness of ecological environmental protection all have significant negative impacts on deviation between farmers’ willingness and behaviors of biological pesticide application. In addition, the perspective of reality, the social conduct, the current situation and price have significant positive impacts. Besides, from the results of the interpretation structural model, the logical hierarchy is presented as a “single path, three driving” pattern. The characteristics of farmers and management are the core influencing factors. Based on the research findings, this paper suggests to improve farmers’ professional skills, to increase the publicity of green production to improve farmers’ cognition level, to accelerate the construction of biological pesticide market, and to optimize the policy mechanism of biological pesticide.
    2020,41(4):659-668, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0044
    Abstract:
    Stable land tenure can encourage farmland investment of farmers and contribute significantly to promote the sustainable use of farmland resources and the sustainable development of agriculture. Land right confirmation is an important formal institutional arrangement that stabilizes land tenure. Therefore, stabilizing land tenure is an important function of land right confirmation. Based on a field survey data from the advantageous apple producing area in the Loess Plateau and applying the theory of induced institutional change and the theory of social psychology, this paper investigated the influences and the mechanism of the land right confirmation on the farmers’ perception of land tenure stability from the perspective of family land inequality in villages, and explored the land tenure stabilization effect of the new round of land right confirmation by the Logit model and the Ologit model. Results show that 33.79% of surveyed farmers have completed the new round of land right confirmation, and 62.64% of them believe that the research plot will not be readjusted in the future, that is, the land tenure perceived by farmers are stable. The new round of land right confirmation has significantly strengthened farmers’ perception of land tenure stability and it has a stronger strengthening effect in the situation that controlled land inequality in villages. While the family land inequality in villages has a weakening effect on the perception of land tenure stability and the family land inequality in village has a negative regulation effect on the impact of land right confirmation on the farmers’ perception of land tenure stability. For the further reform of the land right system of “the separation of three rights”, the government should attach importance to standardizing the procedures of land right confirmation and strengthening the publicity and information disclosure of land property system reform. At the same time, the policy makers should focus on the combination of policy adjustment and market allocation to reduce the negative impacts of land endowment inequality and to strengthen the policy effect of land property right reform.
    2020,41(4):669-677, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0049
    Abstract:
    Establishing an effective incentive mechanism for grass-roots village officials to encourage them to lead income growth for rural residents is an important measure to realize the rural revitalization strategy. Based on the incentive theory and a panel data of representative villages from 2004 to 2018, this paper analyzed the impacts of incentive mechanism of village committee head on the income growth of rural residents and explored the mediating effect of public investment by a fixed effect model. Results show that the annual salary of village committee head has been increasing gradually from 5 500.55 CNY/person in 2004 to 26 480.49 CNY/person in 2018. However, the percentage of annual salary growth coupling with assessment indicators, crucial assessment indicator being economic development and salary deduction by greater than or equal to 10% when crucial assessment indicator not meeting the target showed a decreasing trend. The per capita net income in villages maintained steady growth, and it increased from 3 735.71 CNY in 2004 to 12 020.34 CNY in 2018. The income of rural residents in developed eastern coastal areas represented by Jiangsu Province was much higher than that in other areas. This research also found that both the annual salary and crucial assessment indicator significantly affected per capita net income. The annual salary imposed influences on per capita net income through the amounts of public investment partially funded by the village collective. Based on these findings, this paper suggested that the government should set reasonable assessment indicators for village committee head, increase annual salary of village committee head, and enlarge the scale of public investment in underdeveloped villages.
    2020,41(4):678-686, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0059
    Abstract:
    Based on the weekly data from August 2018 to June 2019, this paper constructed an African swine fever public opinion index as the measurement indicator of the epidemic situation and applied the VAR model, the Granger causality test, the impulse response and other measurement methods to explore the dynamic impacts of the change of public opinion index of African swine fever on the price fluctuation of livestock and poultry meat products. Results indicate that the public opinion of African swine fever affects the prices of different meat products, but the impulses and impacts of different meat products are different and dynamic. Among them, the public attention on African swine fever epidemic has the greatest impact on pork price and chicken price, followed by duck meat, and finally beef and lamb. Lamb price has received the least impact. African swine fever public opinion has a rapid impact on the price of meat market, and the impact on the price of meat other than pork does not last for a long time. The change of African swine fever public opinion index has a combination of positive and negative effects on various meats, and this effect has a reverse effect in the later period. The information of African swine fever epidemic can be transmitted smoothly in the meat industry. Based on this research, it is suggested that the government should incorporate African swine fever public opinion into the price early warning system of livestock and poultry market to strengthen the monitoring of the epidemic. Relevant departments should actively assist relevant companies to guide the public opinion of the epidemic in an orderly manner. At the same time, the production capacity of poultry meat should be strictly controlled to avoid the disorderly expansion of poultry production and the imbalance between supply and demand.
    2020,41(4):687-698, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0042
    Abstract:
    The development of small-scale farmers face several obstacles, including the information asymmetry between production and marketing, and the lack of funds, knowledge and experience. Being a cooperative economic organization, the management of agronomic cooperative is influenced by natural, social and economic factors such as the climate conditions, market price, and the ability of farmers. The operation of the cooperative depend mainly on how to connect the information between production and market, evaluate the cost precisely, and organize the production according to the requirement. Learning from the idea of digital twins in industrial field, this paper proposes the concept of digital quads (digital cooperatives) based on the description, prediction, and prescription of parallel intelligent systems. The proposed digital cooperatives serve the cooperative management including planning, preparation, production, assessment, etc. This paper introduces the frame, design and key technologies of digital cooperatives, and discusses the potential user types and operation mechanism. The system consists of data sensing, decision support and decision execution, and the key intelligent technologies include plant modeling, crop planning, block-chain, machine leaning, etc. Taking organic rice cultivation as an example, this paper briefly describes the whole process of cost analysis, crop planning, and visualization of remote planting for cooperatives. The simulation of the contract production process illustrate part functions of cooperative managers. The concept of digital cooperative can provide guidance for the development of cooperative-oriented information systems. Due to the situation that small-scale agronomical economics dominate, and cooperatives are main managing bodies, the digital cooperative is helpful in promoting the capacity of manager, supporting the small-scale farmers to reach big market, and augmenting the overall efficiency of the agricultural physical social economical system.
    2020,41(4):699-708, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0043
    Abstract:
    Building an evaluation system for farmland quality management (FQM) based on performance appraisal, quantitatively evaluating the FQM performance, and diagnosing its obstacles are of a great significance for improving the FQM performance level. This paper constructed an FQM evaluation system for performance appraisal from three aspects: productivity, environment and ecology. Taking Yimen Town, Binzhou City, Shaanxi Province as an example, this paper evaluated the regional FQM performance level and identified some obstacles to the performance level by the improved TOPSIS method and the obstacle factor diagnosis model. Results show that: 1) the performance of FQM in the study area includes medium and good levels, accounting for 88.54% and 11.46% of the total farmland area in the region respectively. The spatial distribution of productivity performance level is uneven and the overall farming condition performance level is at the medium level; 2) the soil quality performance level is good, the overall environmental performance is moderate; and 3) the ecological performance of most farmland is at the good level. In addition, this research also found that main obstacles to the FQM performance imposed significant impacts on productivity performance, environmental performance, and ecological performance in the decreasing order. These obstacles, in the descending order of their influence degrees, include soil organic matter and soil heavy metals. The evaluation results of the FQM evaluation system can objectively reflect the FQM level and have a strong pertinence while satisfying the purpose of performance assessment.
    2020,41(4):709-717, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0057
    Abstract:
    Asymbiotic nitrogen fixation (ANF) is an important pathway of external nitrogen input to natural terrestrial ecosystems, and is crucial in governing the structure, functions and processes of ecosystems. However, the understanding on how ANF changes with ecological succession is very limited. Here, we measured ANF rate in soil, litter and moss along a post-agricultural succession including grassland, shrubland and forest in growing and non-growing seasons of the same year in a karst region, using acetylene reduction assay. The results showed that the patterns of ANF rates in soil, litter and moss with succession were different. Across the two seasons, ANF rates in soil and litter decreased initially and then increased significantly. ANF rate in moss was not significantly different between grassland and shrubland but significantly increased in forest. Annual ANF rates in grassland, shrubland and forest were (1.21±0.06) kg N/(hm2·a), (0.23±0.03) kg N/(hm2·a) and (0.65±0.04) kg N/(hm2·a), respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that water content, organic C, total N and C:N ratio were the strongest explanatory variables responsible for the variation of ANF rate with post-agricultural succession. The results are helpful for understanding nitrogen cycles of karst ecosystems and provide a mechanism explanation for nitrogen accumulation during post-agricultural succession.
    2020,41(4):718-726, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2020.0061
    Abstract:
    Based on digital images of unmanned aerial vehicle, the effects of “image-spectrum” fusion indexes based on spectral information and texture features on the estimation of nitrogen nutrition index in winter wheat were investigated, which provided a new method for accurate estimation of nitrogen nutrition status. Digital images of unmanned aerial vehicle and corresponding biomass and nitrogen content data were used. The correlation between image indexes, texture features and nitrogen nutrition index was firstly analyzed, and then the image indexes and texture features were multiplied or divided and fused to form “image-spectrum” fusion indexes, the correlation was also analyzed between “image-spectrum” fusion indexes and nitrogen nutrition index, and “image-spectrum” fusion indexes which sensitive to nitrogen nutrition index were selected based on the integration of grey relation analysis and variance inflation factor. Finally, the ability of image indexes, texture features and “image-spectrum” fusion indexes to estimate nitrogen nutrition index was estimated by partial least square analysis. The results showed that the correlation between “image-spectrum” fusion indexes and nitrogen nutrition index had been greatly improved than the correlation between image indexes, texture features and nitrogen nutrition index. The estimation accuracy of the nitrogen nutrition index model constructed by the “image-spectrum” fusion indexes (R2 equal to 0.644 3) was higher than the models constructed by image indexes (R2 equal to 0.593 8) and texture features (R2 equal to 0.584 5), and the verification result of model which constructed by the “image-spectrum” fusion indexes had the smallest root mean square error of 0.114. The “image-spectrum” indexes based on the fusion of spectral information and texture features could effectively improve the inversion accuracy of the winter wheat nitrogen nutrition index, and provided an effective idea for the inversion of winter wheat nitrogen nutrition diagnosis.
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    2011,32(2):184-187, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1168) [HTML] (0) [PDF 667.68 K] (12709)
    Abstract:
    The fluctuation of the small-scale agricultural products price has a great impact on the development of agricultural economy and the improvement of people's living standard. The paper summarizes the causes of price fluctuating of the small-scale agricultural products and brings forward the question that we should strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market. Some methods and recommendations are proposed to strengthen the construction of small-scale agricultural products market: promoting purchasing market, standardizing wholesale market, discovering futures market, and promoting information, nurturing broker, establishing co-operatives, increasing reserves, enacting transactions act, and so on.
    2014,35(3):308-312, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1430) [HTML] (0) [PDF 18.14 M] (5568)
    Abstract:
    Using ESDA spatial analysis, this paper researches the spatial pattern evolution and characteristics of per capita net income of farmers in the Yangtze River Delta counties since 1989. The results show that: (1) the absolute difference in per capita net income of farmers is gradually widening, while the relative difference is decreasing with periodic fluctuations; (2)the level of per capita net income of farmers has a strong positive spatial correlation, and the regions with similar income levels have a spatial agglomeration; (3)the growth pattern of per capita net income is proved to be more instable, where its growth hot spots and cold spots switch frequently in their geographical locations, showing the existence of transition phenomenon. Apart from subordinate revenue growth cold spots, trend of spatial concentration enhanced while tendency of random distribution weakened in other growth type areas. Finally, this paper reaches some conclusions and conducts some corresponding discussions. Besides, related suggestions are given to narrow regional differences in Yangtze River Delta counties and promote the regional coordinated development.
    2014,35(2):183-187, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1265) [HTML] (0) [PDF 970.61 K] (3675)
    Abstract:
    Based on the research review, the wine industry has been around all round the world, not only limited in developed counties and western countries. Nowadays, wine consumption in China presents the trend of rapid growing, China’s wine industry cluster develops in a higher level; nonetheless this industry is facing some challenges in China. As such, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the status and developing trends of China’s wine industry from the various aspects namely regional planting, yield, market consumption, and the investment. Data and information from current literatures are used to investigate the conditions of China’s wine industry. It was found that numerous problems impede the development of China’s wine industry including lack of overall planning of the construction of exist producing region, imbalance development between eastern and western areas, poor and lag behind of product quality management and pre-maturation of the marketing system. The article eventually points out some developing strategies involving reasonable layout and enhance competitiveness in overall producing area; set up the wine industry chain management; strengthen origin protection, and improve the quality certification system; use the new marketing and promoting model, to spread wine culture and to promote the sustainable development of China’s wine industry.
    2013,34(3):284-287, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1144) [HTML] (0) [PDF 632.25 K] (2843)
    Abstract:
    Clearing up rural poverty, realizing city and country correspond development is long striving aim of Chinese Government. Currently, the quantity of rural poverty population in China has taken on a sharp decline, comparative poverty standing out, returning poverty severity, and overspread to city. This article from economic rising, income distributing, trade freedom, rural labor mobility and finance support agriculture, puts up economics explaining about currently Chinese rural poverty status, Lastly, puts forward relevant policy suggestion of enlarging domestic demand, adjusting income distribution, strengthening education train, adjusting agriculture production structure and method of supporting agriculture.
    2013,34(1):90-94, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1286) [HTML] (0) [PDF 842.49 K] (2822)
    Abstract:
    This paper analyses the current status of agricultural pollution resulting from overuse of agricultural chemical inputs since the reform and open-up. It turns out that the formation of agricultural pollution is related to agricultural industrial policies, rural-urban economic structure, pollution controlling fund, environmental general management, “agri-environmental” policies, pollution controlling law and farmer’s environmental awareness. In order to cope with agricultural pollution effectively, some measures that have to be taken are as follows: integration of agricultural and environmental policies, establishment of environmental friendly agricultural technology system, implementation of valley comprehensive management, enhancement of environmental management capabilities of agricultural pollution, strengthening of peasants’ environmental education and establishment of agricultural environmental protection law.
    2012,33(1):23-26, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1272) [HTML] (0) [PDF 675.25 K] (2776)
    Abstract:
    With the increase of the importation scale, the quality and safety of imported whey powder has become the hot issue which arise a lot of attentions and should be solved urgently. This thesis analyzes the necessities of establishing the quality and safety risk warning mechanism of imported whey powder, based on the current conditions of whey powder importation, using the method of warning method based on case study ratiocination, sets up the imported whey powder quality and safety risk warning mechanism from three aspects, including warning information gathering, warning model building and fast response system, and puts forwards the countermeasures of consummating the warning system
    2012,33(1):13-18, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1317) [HTML] (0) [PDF 844.25 K] (2731)
    Abstract:
    Large scale is the direction of pig- producing development of China in future, but does not mean breeding scale the bigger the better. The rationality, scientificalness and suitability of each region pig- producing scale has determined the effectiveness of pig-producing to a large extent. This paper shows that, from the national average level to see, the moderate scale has the strongest profitability. Specific to major pig producing provinces, the strongest profitability of farming was difference in different province. The current pig scale cultivation exist such problems as the disease prevention and control status not optimum, production cost and the scales price has no advantage and the standardization level need to improve. Finally, combine the current national and provincial pig scale development situation and problems, this paper proposed the corresponding countermeasure to promote the healthy development of
    2014,35(4):385-391, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2014.0019
    [Abstract] (1660) [HTML] (0) [PDF 6.04 M] (2582)
    Abstract:
    Using grain production panel data in 30 provinces in China from 2001 to 2010, this paper adopts a DEA-based Malmquist productivity index method to measure and decompose grain TFP (Total Factor Productivity) growth index of the nation’s main grain production areas, main grain sales areas, and balancing areas. This paper also analyzes the spatial and temporal disparities and the underlying mechanism of dynamic TFP index. On this basis, it continues to explore TFP and its decomposition value - exogenous influencing factor of technical efficiency index and technical progress index. Our results show that the TFP index of main production areas have realized an average annual increase of 0.28% within 10 years, which has benefited from technical improvement and efficiency enhancement. However, main sales areas have suffered from a duel loss in the technical progress and technical efficiency. As a result, TFP has an average annual decrease of 0.35%. TFP in balancing areas also has an average decrease of 0.69%, influenced by deterioration of technical progress. We also find that the implementation of the central government’s favorable policies to farmers has significant influence on improving grain TFP level in main production areas. However, these policies have a lagging influence on main sales areas and balancing areas. In addition, per capital grain production scale and mechanization level have negative influence on TFP growth in main grain production area, but positive influence on TFP in main grain sales areas. As for the grain production-sales balancing areas, expansion of the per capita production scale can improve the technical efficiency, but has a reverse inhibiting impact on TFP and technical progress. Finally, based on the research results, this paper proposes measures and suggestions to improve grain productivity more effectively.
    2009,30(4):430-433, DOI:
    Abstract:
    中国是世界上最大的水产品生产国,但我国居民水产品消费水平并不高。本文分析了我国水产品消费水平的现状和趋势及原因以及我国水产品消费的主要特征及其成因:即水产品消费的城乡绝对差距,水产品与其它副食品消费的相对差距两部分的水产品消费城乡差异;由水产品加工技术和规模的限制及各地社会经济发展的不平衡造成的水产品消费地域性差异;户外消费呈现增长趋势;并就如何提高我国水产品的消费水平进行了讨论。
    2010,31(5):525-528, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1252) [HTML] (0) [PDF 620.82 K] (2426)
    Abstract:
    本文从水稻生产、市场、贸易等方面,分析了世界水稻产业发展现状,以及世界水稻产业发展面临着人口持续增加,消费量稳定增长;资源约束性增强,水稻生产增速放缓;全球气候变暖,灾害性气候和病虫害多发;比较效益偏低,增产与增收矛盾突出等严峻形势。指出今后世界水稻产业发展的趋势是水稻产量总量增加,增速减缓;稻米人均消费量稳定,总量增加;各国自给率提高,贸易量减少。提出要立足国内稻米生产基本自给、利用国际市场满足国内需求不现实,要大力提高水稻产业化水平。
    2013,34(1):25-29, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1903) [HTML] (0) [PDF 768.89 K] (2420)
    Abstract:
    This paper try to comparative multi-function of urban modern agriculture of Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou for example, and use the method of combing static and dynamic and of combing qualitative and quantitative to comparative and analyze the urban modern agriculture functions of economy, ecology and society. It can be seen that the differences on economic mainly in the difference of structure of agricultural land only for the difference of types of terrain of three cities, which affect the structure of agriculture industry. Ratio of agro-structural change decreases gradually. Advantage indexes of animal husbandry and fisheries of Shanghai are higher, farming, fisheries and agricultural services of Nanjing, forestry and animal husbandry of Hangzhou are higher as well. The production capacity of vegetables of Shanghai and the production capacity of grain of Nanjing and the production capacity of fruit of Hangzhou is higher than that of others separately in 2010. Secondly, the value of farmland ecosystem carbon sequestration and oxygen releasing of Nanjing is lowest in 2010. Optimal adjustment of the agricultural space layout maintains the ecological environment. The pesticide and chemical fertilizer excessive remains a serious problem. Lastly, agricultural tourism of three cities is in the leisure stage towards the holiday stage. Meanwhile, the three cities take different leisure agriculture development models, and achieve results in employment and economic benefits.
    2012,33(2):150-154, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1112) [HTML] (0) [PDF 804.46 K] (2417)
    Abstract:
    The paper applies the model of Stochastic Dominance in analyzing the regional advantages of feeding dairy cows, studies show that the coast region in north of China and the Yellow River region have the advantages of feeding dairy cows, including Tianjin and Hebei, the most significant comparative advantage, followed by Shandong, Henan and Shaanxi. The factors of cost advantages of feeding dairy cows are analyzed from the perspectives of technical level, elements of cost and natural resource endowment, results showed that: the factors of cost advantages are comprehensive. Some suggestions put forward, that including accelerating construction and layout of dairy farming regions to develop the model with regional comparative advantages; through supporting and promoting the development of dairy cooperatives to improve the degree of organization
    2015,36(2):315-320, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2015.0011
    [Abstract] (1075) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.39 M] (2325)
    Abstract:
    Along with the intelligence and automation improving in agricultural machinery, the application of steering-by-wire technology in agricultural vehicles such as tractors has received concerns and researches. In order to guide the study of hydraulic steering-by-wire of tractor and to shorten the development cycle, a co-simulation model was built based on the analysis of hydraulic steering-by-wire system control algorithm and structure. The hydraulic system and full vehicle model were built on AMESim software platform. Meantime, PID, fuzzy PID and fuzzy immune PID control modeling were constructed by using Simulink software. While Visual C++ 6.0 was chosen to realize interface communication, the angle response and angle following co-simulation were completed with angle transmission ratio 1; as well as the co-simulation of yawing angular velocity response and centroid side-slip angle response under the speed of 15 km/h, the steering wheel Angle 180°, angle transmission ratio 9. The experimental results show that step response time achieves 0.272 s with fuzzy immune PID control, following error of 1.182°, 3% overshoot amount of the yawing angular velocity response, and 0.85°/s steady-state value of centroid side-slip angle response, they both prevail over the performance of common PID and fuzzy PID. In conclusion, co-simulation maintains a strong reference value, and an ideal control effect is able to achieve while fuzzy immune PID control are applied into hydraulic steering-by-wire system.
    2014,35(2):134-139, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1986) [HTML] (0) [PDF 902.08 K] (2251)
    Abstract:
    From the angle of urban and rural aging population inversion phenomenon in China and the challenges brought by it, this paper analyzes the relationship between urbanization and aging population inversion in urban and rural areas in China. In the long term of traditional process of urbanization, population transfer is mainly labor transfer, and the elderly population transfer has been driven by the transfer is limited, thus improve the degree of aging of the rural population and have an impact on the balanced urban and rural development. This population transfer mode is the main reason for the formation of urban and rural aging population inversion. Meanwhile, urban and rural aging population inversion have an impact on urbanization, it not only affects the level and pace of urbanization, but also affects the quality of urbanization. To alleviate this condition, we must take a new urbanizing road, change the urban and rural population transfer mode, and integrate urban and rural social security system.
    2014,35(2):158-162, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1384) [HTML] (0) [PDF 954.44 K] (2228)
    Abstract:
    The industrial base of rice such as enrichment of rice resources, preferable processing industry foundation and high quality and massive market demand in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed. Some advantages such as good ecological environment, less chemical pollution and larger quantity of high quality rice were also analyzed. The problems such as serious degradation of rice, lack of alternative rice, inadequate processing enterprises, severe losses of processing enterprises, inefficient logistics and lack of policy support and financial support from relevant government and financial department were also analyzed. Some countermeasures such as increasing investment in seed research, speeding up the seed base construction, introducing the market access system, gradually dissolving the backward production capacity, developing the food logistics and intensifying policy support etc were put forward for promoting the development of rice industry.
    2008,29(2):204-207, DOI:
    Abstract:
    现代农业发展对环境的外部影响有正、反两面性,西方国家通过"先污染、后治理"的道路来实现农业现代化;我国农业发展偏好于在技术层面照搬西方模式,过分追求物质要素的发展,对我国精耕细作的优良传统未加以充分利用,农业对环境的破坏作用比较突出。文章在比较中西方现代农业模式基础上,提出了我国现代农业发展过程中环境保护的对策。
    2010,31(2):142-146,170, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1144) [HTML] (0) [PDF 924.73 K] (2143)
    Abstract:
    边缘效应能使边缘区汇聚城乡的经济优势,并且能够产生整合增殖效益,促进城乡综合效益的实现,有利于生态环境资源保护、提高资源开发的适宜度和城乡布局的统筹优化。负熵是边缘区作为耗散结构系统与外界进行物流、能流交换,产生边缘效应的基础。协同能够使边缘区各子系统之间彼此协调,同步作用,这是边缘效应产生的根本。要充分发挥长株潭城市群的边缘效应,有力地促进"两型农业"建设,措施如下:对生态环境优化进行总体规划、保护生态资源,建立资源节约体系;建立健全土地利用的有关法律和土地市场,宏观调控土地规划;大力发展城镇网络、优化总体布局、实现城乡统筹等。
    2013,34(1):100-103, DOI:
    [Abstract] (1335) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.10 M] (2134)
    Abstract:
    Compared with the traditional sieve-pipette method, the laser diffraction method is a new technology for determination of soil particle size distribution, which has obvious advantages in measurement efficiency and operation error reducing. However, the laser diffraction method always underestimates the clay content. In order to set up the conversion models, 70 soil samples selected from karst areas of Northwest Guangxi were measured by Mastersize2000 laser diffraction and the sieve-pipette method. The results showed that based on the classification criteria of USDA (United States Department of Agriculture), the clay volume content (< 0.002 mm) using the laser diffraction method was lower than that using the sieve-pipette method, while the silt volume content (0.002 mm - 0.05 mm) was higher. The relative errors of the clay and silt contents increased with the increase of clay content measured by sieve-pipette. The sand content was sometimes higher and sometimes lower with the lowest relative error. Significant relationships were found between the clay and sand contents determined by the two methods, but not between the silt content. However, the < 0.02 mm content measured by the two methods was significantly correlated. The laser diffraction measured results of soil particle size distribution could be converted by the linear regression equation of the following four particles grades including < 0.002 mm, < 0.02 mm, 0.02 mm- 0.05 mm and > 0.05 mm.
    2015,36(2):174-180, DOI: 10.13872/j.1000-0275.2014.0107
    [Abstract] (1142) [HTML] (0) [PDF 1.25 M] (2072)
    Abstract:
    The federal government of United States will manage the risk of farm production and farm business through a range of support programs, which are collectively known as the farm safety net including commodity programs mainly for the market risk, crop insurance programs mainly for the natural risk and agricultural disaster assistance programs for the risk not covered by the above two plans. 2014 United States farm bill adjusted the content and structure of the farm safety net, trying to build an organic combination among commodity programs ,crop insurance programs and agricultural disaster assistance programs, focus on subsidies efficiency and strengthen risk management. The new farm safety net could make AMS no more against American reduction commitments, increase American potential range of agricultural products trade disputes, and reduce the willingness of the USA to cut “yellow box policy” subsidies in the new WTO agreement, which have an important impact on world trade of agricultural products. The new farm safety net will aggravate the pressure of imports of agricultural products for China, and have the following enlightenment to agricultural subsidy policy reform of China: continue to intensify protection of support; adhere to the market-oriented reform direction; improve the agricultural insurance system.

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